Yes, it is possible to claim your girlfriend as a dependent, not as a spouse. The rules for claiming a dependent are found in IRS publication 17, chap 3. It states that she has to be a U.S. Citizen or resident, and neither you nor she can be claimed as a dependent on another return. It also states that to claim a person as a dependent she has to be a 'Qualifying Child' or a Qualifying Relative'. To be a 'Qualifying Relative' they have to pass 4 tests: 1) not be a qualifying child (she is not your child) 2) Member of the Household test (She must live with you all year) 3) Gross income test (Less than $3,400 in gross income for 2007) 4) Support test (You, as the taxpayer, provided more than 50% of her support) If you met all of the tests, and your relationship does not violate local law, you can claim her as a Dependent on line 6c of the 1040 or 1040a. You can list her under the relationship column as a 'qualifying person'. The only difference between 2006 and 07 is the Gross income test for 2006 is $3,300. Claiming her as a dependent will reduce your taxable income, and thereby reduce your total tax. You cannot use her to qualify for other credits such as the Earned Income credit, Child Tax credit, etc. And she will not allow you to claim Head of Household filing status.
Good answer, Jack!! Also, you cannot claim a dependent on form 1040EZ. You have to use a 1040A, or 1040 long form. If you need tax assistance, you can call 800-829-1040, and ask for the filing status/dependents section.