The original word 'organization' comes from the Greek word Organon which itself is derived from the word Ergon which literally translates to 'organ' which is a compartment for a particular job.
There are a wide range of different organizations within our social structure that allow our society to function and fulfil their public duties; co-operatives, charities, non profit corporations, governments, corporations, Universities, companies, non government organizations, international organizations, armed forces and any other types that are similar that cover the public sector and the private sector. There are also what is known as hybrid organizations which are a combination of two of the above such as a combination of a corporate organization and the government.
If we look at organizations from a social sciences perspective then we need to understand that it is a subject for analysis using a number of disciplines which include; sociology, political sciences, psychology, economics, management and organizational communications. When people say they are studying organizations they may say that they are studying; organizational studies, organizational structure, organizational analysis and organizational behaviour. All of these names mean the exact same thing but are the names that are given by different institutes to their courses.
When studying organization, you will learn three different perspectives to look at it; Process related perspective, Functional perspective and Institutional perspective. Process related perspective looks at how an organization is viewed as an entity, that it is in effect being re-organized so that the focus shifts on the organization to become a set of precise actions or tasks. Functional perspective is different as it focuses on how it is similar to a business and how they are being used. Finally, an institutional perspective is where they look at an organization's structure and whether it is useful within the correct social context.