The IRS or The Internal Revenue Service is an agency run by the Department of The Treasury. It currently operates ten mail centres around the USA to which mail and tax returns are sent and it is here where tax claims are calculated. In recent years the IRS has on average been in receipt of 138,893,098 every 12 months, so it is no surprise if you are left sweating on what you might have to pay, or indeed might be owed. The average time for a tax return to be dealt with if it has been posted is between 6 and 8 weeks, but online returns have helped to reduce this time. There are a number of ways of checking on the status of your tax return, though be warned, they can all be rather time consuming. Firstly you can call into your local IRS office. They are able to access the main IRS database and tell you if your return has been received - they should also be able to reveal what you owe or are owed in as little as 3 minutes. The IRS website is a very useful tool in tracking down the status of your return; go to www.irs.gov and visit the section titled "Where is my refund?” This will at least reveal whether they have received your paperwork, if not what money is due. You could always wait to see if your check debited, or a there is direct deposit for your refund if you don't get an email confirmation directly. Once these things occur, it is proof that the IRS received your return and accepted it. Failing this you can always call the IRS directly on their national helpline number which is 1-800-829-1040.
You can call the IRS at 1-800-829-1040. There should be a menu item for finding out the current status of your return. That would include whether or not your return was received.