This sounds like you'd be eligible to claim unemployment, however you may want to email just to be sure. You can find contact details here: http://www.vec.virginia.gov/unemployed/online-services/apply-for-unemployment-benefits and they claim to reply within 24 hours.
According to details on the Virginia Unemployment Commission site, "you must have been separated from your employer or have had your hours reduced."
This sounds like the case with you.
Your mom is right about sticking with it and applying for other jobs in the meantime though.
I know it can be difficult as a single parent, but I'd encourage you to apply for as many positions as you can. If you give us some more info on what kind of work you're looking for, maybe someone in the community here can help out further.
As for your boss, it sucks what he's doing. If he has an issue with your performance, he should be trying to help you improve or giving you guidance rather than managing you out.
I'd have a careful look at your contract to make sure he's allowed to treat you in this way.
Is there anyone superior to him who you could reach out to?