The interaction between two atoms of same or different kind is called chemical bonding. Ionic bond is such type of interaction that takes place between two ions. Ions are the species formed by the removal or gaining of electrons. Ionic bonds are formed by complete gain or removal of electrons. The compounds formed as a result of ionic bond are called ionic compounds. These compounds are soluble in water and have sharp melting and boiling points. Covalent bond is formed by the equal sharing of one or more electrons between similar or different kinds of atoms. The covalent bond formed between similar atoms is called non- polar covalent bond and the bond formed between dissimilar atoms is called polar covalent bond. Polar covalent compounds are soluble while non-polar compounds are insoluble in water. Covalent bond is the strongest bond and is many times stronger than ionic bond.
An ionic bond is formed with the complete transference of electron from one atom to the other while in a covalent bond the electron is shared between the two atoms. In an ionic bond, positive and negative ions are formed as a result of complete transference of electrons like the atom which gains electron is known as negative ion while the other is known as positive ion. In covalent bond, only partial positive and negative atoms are formed. Moreover, metals form ionic compounds and carbon containing atoms form covalent bonds.
There are three types of bonding including ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. Ionic bonding takes place when two atoms react and one atom gives or gains complete electron from the other atom. For example, when sodium chloride is formed then sodium gives its one electron to chlorine. As a result negative one charge comes on sodium and positive one charge comes on chlorine. On the other hand, covalent bonding is formed when an atom shares its electrons with the other atom and only partial positive or negative charge is formed. The metallic bonds are formed when metal atoms react and their valence electrons form electron cloud that surrounds the positive atoms. In this case, no positive or negative atoms are formed.
Ionic refers to a cation and an anion, in other words a metal and and non metal
Iönic bönd make during transformation of electron between atoms while covalent bond make during sharing of electrons.