Disadvantages of File Processing Systems include: 1. Program-Data Dependence. File descriptions are stored within each application program that accesses a given file. 2. Duplication of Data. Applications are developed independently in file processing systems leading to unplanned duplicate files. Duplication is wasteful as it requires additional storage space and changes in one file must be made manually in all files. This also results in loss of data integrity. It is also possible that the same data item may have different names in different files, or the same name may be used for different data items in different files. 3. Limited data sharing. Each application has its own private files with little opportunity to share data outside their own applications. A requested report may require data from several incompatible files in separate systems. 4. Lengthy Development Times. There is little opportunity to leverage previous development efforts. Each new application requires the developer to start from scratch by designing new file formats and descriptions 5. Excessive Program Maintenance. The preceding factors create a heavy program maintenance load.